The international law on labour governs spheres both public and private and includes the regulation of employees, employers, unions and governance of member states in these matters overall. The international institutions central to the administration of this legal regime are the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the World Trade Organization (WTO). Other organizations including the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund also play a role in shaping international laws on labour.

 

Disputes over these matters manifest mostly in domestic courts. However, the overall guidelines are codified at an international level for the equal development of rights around the globe. The ILO has developed countless laws for states regulating numerous aspects of employment, including frameworks for the employment of women and children. There are eight fundamental conventions identified by the ILO that cover key labour issues in regards to work. These issues include freedom of association, recognition of the right to collective bargaining, elimination and prohibition on slavery and forced or compulsory labour, restrictions on child labour and the elimination of discrimination in respect to employment and occupations. These issues are outlined in the ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work and are bound by various treaties including the fundamental eight as follows: the Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize Convention, 1948 (No. 87); Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention, 1949 (No. 98); Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29); Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105); Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138); Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182); Equal Remuneration Convention, 1951 (No. 100); and the Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention, 1958 (No. 111).

International Law Instruments

ILO Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work (1998)

 

Freedom of Association and Protection of the Right to Organize Convention (1948)

Ratified by Pakistan on February 14, 1951

 

Right to Organize and Collective Bargaining Convention (1949)

Ratified by Pakistan on May 26, 1952

 

Forced Labour Convention (1930)

Ratified by Pakistan on December 23, 1957

 

Abolition of Forced Labour Convention (1957)

Ratified by Pakistan on February 15, 1960

 

Minimum Age Convention (1973)

Ratified by Pakistan on July 6, 2006

 

Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (1999)

Ratified by Pakistan on October 11, 2001

 

Equal Remuneration Convention (1951)

Ratified by Pakistan on October 11, 2001

 

Discrimination (Employment and Occupation) Convention (1958)

Ratified by Pakistan on January 24, 1961

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